The imitation mass parody mass Masses were normally titled by the source from which they borrowed. Cantus firmus mass uses the same monophonic melody, usually drawn from chant and usually in the tenor and most often in longer note values than the other voices Burkholder n. Other sacred genres were the madrigale spirituale and the laude. During the period, secular non-religious music had an increasing distribution, with a wide variety of forms, but one must be cautious about assuming an explosion in variety:
The quantity and diversity of artistic works during the period do not fit easily into categories for interpretation, but some loose generalizations may be drawn.
At the opening of the century, baroque forms were still popular, as they would be at the end. They were partially supplanted, however, by a general lightening in the rococo motifs of the early s. This was followed, after the middle of the century, by the formalism and balance of neoclassicism, with its resurrection of Greek and Roman models.
Although the end of the century saw a slight romantic turn, the era's characteristic accent on reason found its best expression in neoclassicism. In painting, rococo emphasized the airy grace and refined pleasures of the salon and the boudoir, of delicate jewelry and porcelains, of wooded scenes, artful dances, and women, particularly women in the nude.
Rococo painters also specialized in portraiture, showing aristocratic subjects in their finery, idealized and beautified on canvas.
The rococo painting of Antoine Watteau blended fantasy with acute observations of nature, conveying the ease and luxury of French court life. Italian painters, such a Giovanni Tiepoloalso displayed rococo influences. English painting lacked the characteristic rococo frivolity, but the style affected works by Sir Joshua Reynolds and Thomas Gainsboroughwhose portraits tended to flatter their aristocratic subjects.
Eighteenth-century neoclassicism in painting is difficult to separate from some works in the era of Louis XIV. Both Charles Le Brun and Nicolas Poussin had earlier projected order and balance, often in grandiose scenes from antiquity or mythology.
Jean Chardin carried some of this over into the s. The neoclassic approach, however, often expressed powerful dissatisfaction and criticism of the existing order, sometimes in stark realism and sometimes in colossal allegory.
The most typical representative of this approach was Jacques Louis Davidwhose most famous work, Death of Socrates illustrates his respect for Greco-Roman tradition.
His sketch of Marie Antoinette enroute to the guillotine clearly represents his revolutionary sympathies. The best examples of pure realism and social criticism are the London street scenes by the English painter William Hogarth and the Spanish court portraits of Francisco Goya The number of women painters increased during the eighteenth century, but they were so limited by traditions and so dependent upon public favor that they could hardly maintain consistent styles.
Very few were admitted to academies, where their work might be shown; in France, they were not permitted to work with nude models.
The result was their practical restriction to still-life and portraiture. Among rococo painters, the two best-known were Rachel Ruyscha court painter of flowers in Dusseldorf, and Rosalba Carrieraa follower of Watteau, who was admitted to the French Academy in If possible, they were overshadowed by Angelica Kaufmanna Swiss-born artist who painted in England and Italy.
All three were celebrated intheir time. Each produced grand scenes in the neoclassical style, but their market limited them to flattering portraits, at which they excelled. Neoclassicism also found expression in architecture and sculpture.
Architecture was marked by a return to the intrinsic dignity of what a contemporary called "the noble simplicity and tranquil loftiness of the ancients. In England, where the classical style had resisted baroque influences, the great country houses of the nobility now exhibited a purity of design, which often included a portico with Corinthian columns.
Mount Vernon is an outstanding example of neoclassicism in colonial America. The trend in sculpture often revived classical themes from Greek and Roman mythology; statues of Venus became increasingly popular.
Claude Michel and Jean Houdon were two French neoclassical sculptors who also achieved notable success with contemporary portraits.
Houdon's Portrait of Voltaire is a well-known example. At the opening of the eighteenth century, music demonstrated typical baroque characteristics. These were evident in instrumental music, especially that of the organ and the strings.
The most typical baroque medium was opera, with its opulence and highly emotional content. The era culminated in the sumptuous religious music of Johann Sebastian Bacha prolific German organ master and choir director.
Bach's equally great contemporary, the German-born naturalized Englishman, George Frideric Handelis known for his grand and dramatic operas, oratorios, and cantatas; he is best known today for his religious oratorio, Messiah During the Renaissance, many of these texts were slowly reintroduced into Europe by merchants and scholars.
In an official academic post for teaching Greek was created in Florence. The man hired, Manuel Chrysoloras, brought with him a copy of Ptolemy’s "Geography" from the East. Part of the changes brought by the Renaissance, or perhaps one of the causes, was the change in attitude to pre-Christian books.
Petrarch, who had a self-proclaimed “lust” to seek out forgotten books among the monasteries and libraries of Europe, contributed to a new outlook: one of (secular) passion and hunger for the knowledge.
The Religious and Social Reform of India – The Indian Renaissance! The urgent need for social and religious reform that began to manifest itself from the early decades of the 19th century arose in response to the contact with Western culture and education.
ADVERTISEMENTS: The weakness and decay of Indian society was evident to educated [ ]. History Discussion. History Discussion - Discuss Anything About History Discuss Anything About History. the painters of Italy during Renaissance brought excellence and became world famous.
Among the painters of the world, ‘Leonardo-da-Vinci’ occupied a unique position. the Science of the Renaissance period brought revolutionary. This webpage is for Dr. Wheeler's literature students, and it offers introductory survey information concerning the literature of classical China, classical Rome, classical Greece, the Bible as Literature, medieval literature, Renaissance literature, and genre studies.
This analysis is then followed by a discussion of social changes during the Renaissance era, which encompass the changes in artistic, religious and economic lifestyles. Discussion The Renaissance was the period of European history that was characterized by a renewed interest in classical Roman past.